Top 10 Major Laptop Components Everyone Should Know

Laptops are small computers that are designed for mobile uses. Almost all the laptops easily fit in your lap and are more modest, thinner & lighter than their big brothers – desktop computers. Whenever you’re deciding on a laptop purchase, usually you go through the technical descriptions of the laptop. Technical specifications of a laptop define what kind of hardware is used, their capacity and performance. We thought of educating our readers on the significant laptop components and their functions. Here are the things you should know about your laptop, and it’s major components.

Major laptop Components and their Functions


The motherboard also called as the mainboard, or logic board is the most vital component of the laptop computer. The motherboard is responsible for power supply to major components of laptops. It handles and permits communication between crucial hardware components such as CPU, memory, video card, etc.


The old model of laptop motherboard, but it can give a clear idea of existing components.

The motherboard is the base foundation of the laptop computer as it is one of the essentials. Every type of motherboard is compatible with certain types of processors and memory. BIOS ROM chip on the motherboards enables you to access and set up your computer system.

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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The central processing unit (CPU) is the chief principal processor of the laptop computer. CPU is an electronic circuit which processes the instructions given to the computer by the program using basic arithmetic, logic, Input/Output, and controlling operations.

Laptop CPU

Speed of CPU speed is measured in GigaHertz (GHz). You will find CPU on an Integrated circuit chip called a microprocessor. You must have read single-core and multi-core processors while running through the technical specifications of computers. Processor’s speed is directly proportional to the number of cores.

Processor In Laptop

If you don’t know about your laptop’s processor yet, you can find it yourself using these methods. The multi-core processor gives you the power to do multitasking & multiprocessing without any interruption or time lag.

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Laptop Storage Device (Secondary Storage Devices)

Laptop storage indicates to the secondary storage devices used to store data on your laptop computer. The laptop utilises HDD or SSD as an auxiliary storage device which you will get to see after you open the laptop machine. Most of the laptop machines have a complex assembly; hence, we recommend not to open your laptop at home without proper knowledge of laptops assemblies.

Replace Laptop Hard Disk

Large capacity hard drive devices ensure storage of more programs and files. Modern-day computers come with hundreds and hundreds of gigabytes memory. The access time per byte of HDDs or SSDs is measured in milliseconds. Secondary storage devices often formatted as per the file system format. PCIe NVMe SSDs are faster in performing data transfers than the SATA HDDs.

Ssd Vs Hdd - Laptop Components

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Laptop Memory (Primary Memory)

Laptop memory refers to Random access memory (RAM). RAM, along with the CPU and Secondary storage, is responsible for the speed and performance of your laptop. RAM is made up of integrated circuits and used by the operating system, software programs and hardware elements of the laptop. Higher RAM allows the smooth running of software programs, faster operations and uninterrupted multitasking. RAM capacity measured in gigabytes, web surfing and regular usage laptop runs on at least 2 GB to 4 GB RAM, multimedia and gaming laptops make use of RAM of at least 8 GB or more.

Watch this video to know about the types of RAM available on laptops.

You will usually read the DDR2, DDR3 or DDR4 RAM while running through the technical specifications which tells you the type of RAM used in your laptop. DDR4 RAM refers to Double Data Rate 4 Synchronous Dynamic RAM. Advantages of DDR4 RAM over its predecessors are higher module density, lower voltage requirements, higher data rate transfer speeds.

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Video Card (Graphics Card)

A video card is also called a display adapter; a display card is an expansion card which is responsible for generating graphics on your laptop display. Every CPU comes with the graphics controller unit which is capable of and enables the laptop screens to display basic graphics and videos. Expansion cards are utilised as an additional graphics controller unit to enhance the video and graphics display capacity of laptops.

Display Card How Works

Video card memory is measured in gigabytes. Video cards with large memory enable your laptop to run graphics, images or videos smoothly. You will often read integrated graphics while running through the technical specifications, which is an alternative to video expansion card having integrated graphics hardware to motherboard, processor or a system-on-chip. Intel provides UHD integrated graphics with 8th generation processors to support 4K displays. If you’re a gamer, then you must go for an expansion card with a prodigious memory.

Laptop Display

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Expansion Slots

An expansion slot means any slot present on the motherboard that holds expansion cards like video adapter, sound card, extra memory chip and network card to felicitate performance improvement of your laptop computer.

Expansion Slots

There are various types of expansion slots based on the interface they are using as PCI, PCIe, ISA, AGP. PCIe is the commonly used expansion slot on the modern-day laptop computers assemblies. It gives you the freedom to increase the capacity of hardware, which ultimately helps your laptop run programs faster, 4K displays, quality sound and wireless connectivity.

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Laptop Screen (Display)

Laptop screens refer to the display used in the laptop computer. You will usually find LCD written in the technical specification under the display section of a laptop with the native resolution it caters. The native resolution of a laptop screen refers to the pixel density.

Lcd And Led Laptop Screens

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels used in the laptops could be TFT-backlit or LED-backlit, which communicates with the laptop using LVDS protocol. A higher native resolution of the laptop screen allows a clear, sharp view on your laptop, smaller displays with higher native resolution increases the sharpness of images and text on the laptop screen.

Full Comparison Screens

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Laptop Battery (Power House)

A laptop is a portable device, and it needs a power supply when not connected to any external AC supply which is provided by the lithium-ion batteries. Modern laptops are boasting lithium polymer batteries.

Laptop Battery

You will find nickel-metal-hydride batteries in older laptops which is outdated and replaced by the latest lithium-ion and lithium polymer batteries. Battery capacity is measured in Watt-hours. The battery life of the laptop is highly variable by model and workload; some laptops have a battery life of just 1 hour while some laptops are giving day-long battery.

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Laptop Keyboard

Laptop computers are begetting various types of keyboards including traditional keyboards, Island stye (Chiclet) Keyboards, Mechanical keyboard. Traditional keyboard exhibits consecutively placed keys with each key edge sloping off; It offers more surface area and key travel. The island-style keyboard keys appeared to be popped out of laptop’s body.


Most laptop users love the chiclet keyboard as it gives more space in between the keys, ample key travel and excellent feedback while typing. A mechanical keyboard uses real mechanical switches under the keycaps and membranes under the keys. Mechanical keyboards are producing audible feedback while pressing the keys.

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The trackpad, also known as touchpad or glide pad is nothing but a surface like hardware where you can use your fingers to move the mouse pointer on the laptop screen. Trackpad avoids the usage of external pointing devices such as a mouse, joysticks, etc.

Three Finger Gesture On A Laptop Trackpad

Trackpad operates on either capacitive sending or resistive touch. A precision touchpad allows you to make pointing actions using the two fingers on the trackpad. It doesn’t do all the work in its hardware drivers, but it sends raw touchpad data to windows itself.


Laptops are portable computer machines designed for mobility; hence it uses components smaller than their desktop counterparts. Motherboards, RAM, Hard drive, Displays are often smaller in size on the laptop than the desktop computers. You will observe the use of mini PCI, mini PCIe, Mini SATA interfaces for additional memory, wireless connectivity, SSDs, etc. on the laptops. Port replicators and docking stations can be used to connect peripherals like mice, keyboards, external displays. You should know the significant laptop components, how to measure their capacity, and where to check their performance before the purchase of a laptop.

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